The Tetrapylon that stands today was reconstructed by the DGAM in the 1960s. The original structure was built in the C3rd in the reign of Diocletian. It is a measure of the wealth of the city at this time that the granite columns were imported from Egypt. The structure marks the crossroads where the axis of the main thoroughfare turns to a more acute northern angle.
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Emma Loosley, “Palmyra Tetrapylon,” Architecture and Asceticism, accessed July 17, 2018, http://architectureandasceticism.exeter.ac.uk/items/show/445.