- Collection: Comparative Graeco-Roman and Late Antique architecture of Western Anatolia
Remains of the 6th century AD Basilica to St. John reportedly built upon the saints' tomb and commissioned by the Emperor Justinian. Attacks on Ephesus in the 7th and 8th centuries prompted the fortification of the area immediately surrounding the Basilica The basilica has been extensively excavated and restored since the 1920's.
Built in the 3rd century AD the substantial Basilica at Aspendos was positioned atop the acropolis plateau of the city where many of the city's other important buildings were situated.
The ancient city of Ephesus was famous in antiquity due to the presence of one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World - The Temple of Artemis - on the edge of the settlement. This influence continued in late antiquity, despite the gradual silting up of the harbour, due to St. Paul preaching at the site and the fact that in 431 a pivotal Church Council was held at the Church of the Virgin in the city. This influence continued at least into the C6th, when the Emperor Justinian set up a column on the road to the harbour.
Ephesus also has links with apocryphal Christian legends, including the story of the "Seven Sleepers" which is attached to the rock-cut cemetery north of the city and the fact that the virgin is believed to have retired to a modest home in the area.
The place known as Pamukkale today and visited by many visitors for its calcified hot water springs has been inhabited since antiquity under the name Hierapolis. In late antiquity it became a major site of Christian pilgrimage as the Apostle Philip was believed to be interred in a martyrium to the north of the town.
Late Antique portion of the city walls on the south west edge of the Lower Agora on the acropolis. Much like many other Late Antique defences these fortifications are made up of significant amounts of spolia that was robbed from nearby dilapidated or ruined buildings. These walls were likely built as the city contracted in Late Antiquity.
In Late Antiquity the city of Side had a much shorter, strategic line of defences built within its original line of Hellenic walls. These new defences incorporated the theatre as part of the defensive line. The triumphal arch attached to the theatre also became part of the defences and the arch's aperture was significantly reduced. The new defences were built primarily of spolia looted from derelict or abandoned buildings in and around the city. The clearest evidence of spolia use in the walls can be seen in the use of column drums usually included to add strength to the walls by tying the two outer faces together. The last image, in the background, behind the building covered in scaffolding (The temple of Tyche), shows the late antique part of the wall in front of the theatre.
This church on the hills above and north of the city proper of Hierapolis is believed to be the martyrium where the remains of St Phillip were interred.
The Serapeum was a vast temple and associated complex built at the foot of the acropolis of Pergamum during the reign of the Roman Emperor Hadrian. The temple was dedicated to the worship of the Greaco-Egyptian god Serapis and to the Egyptian goddess Isis. The temple complex was huge and had to cross the nearby Selinus river supported by two very large vaulted tunnels which channel the waters to this day. The majority of the courtyard lies under the modern town buildings to the west of the temple. Originally covered with marble facings only the red brick superstructure of the temple remains. During the late Roman/early Byzantine period a church dedicated to St John was built inside the main temple. The church is in poor preservation when compared to the surrounding temple. However due to the instability of the remaining structure of the temple it is not possible to enter it and view the church remains. The temple is flanked by two contempraneous rotunda, one of which is a functioning mosque while the other is open to the general public.
Situated towards the southernmost point of the peninsular that Side occupies this Basilica was built in the 5th century AD usurping and partly building over the sites of the older Temples Apollo and Athena. The large basilica was destroyed in the 7th century and a smaller church was built within.
Gemiler Island is dotted with several late antique church's from the 4th-6th century AD and is believed to have been the original burial site of St Nicholas, the 4th century AD Bishop of Myra. A covered processional walkway leads to the uppermost and largest church on the island which is cut into the summit of the hill. Fresco's and writing are still visible on portions of one of the lower churches. By the sea, facing the mainland and partially submerged, lie the remains of relatively small structures cut into the rock, likely houses and or shops. Large cisterns are also to be found, presumably to provide fresh water to the permanent monastic population that would have occupied the island and to thirsty pilgrims to the site.